Lake Bracciano (Italian: Lago di Bracciano) is a lake of volcanic origin in the Italian region of Lazio, 32 km (20 mi) northwest of Rome.
It is the second largest lake in the region (second only to Lake Bolsena) and one of the major lakes of Italy.
It has a circular perimeter of approximately 32 km (20 mi).
Its inflow is from precipitation runoff and percolation, and from underground springs, and its outflow is the Arrone.
The lake owes its origin to intense volcanic and tectonic activity from 600,000 to 40,000 years before present, which created many small volcanoes in the Sabatino territory.
The main magma chamber was situated under the present lake of Bracciano. Its collapse created the depressed area now occupied by the lake, which is not a crater lake.
Some small craters and calderas are still recognisable around the lake and in the immediate vicinity (Martignano, Baccano, Sacrofano).
Three towns border the lake, Bracciano, Anguillara Sabazia and Trevignano Romano.
The lake is an important tourist attraction situated near Rome. As it serves as a drinking water reservoir for the city of Rome it has been under control since 1986 in order to avoid pollution of its waters.
The use of motorboats is strictly forbidden (exceptions being made for a few professional fisherman and the authorities), and a centralised sewer system has been built for all the bordering towns in order to avoid any spoiling of the water quality.
This makes Bracciano one of the cleanest lakes of Italy. The absence of motorized navigation (apart from police boats) favours sailing, canoeing and swimming.
In the last few years the lake and its surroundings have been brought under further protection by the creation of a regional park, the Parco Regionale del complesso lacuale di Bracciano Martignano.
Under Pope Paul V, water was brought from Lake Bracciano to the Trastevere region of Rome and (via the Ponte Sisto) to the Rione of Regola.
La Marmotta Neolithic settlement
At La Marmotta, a few hundred meters outside the village of Anguillara Sabazia, remains of an Early Neolithic lakeshore village, datable 5700 BC.
Dendrochronology dates the settlement very accurately, for local tree-ring sequences have already been thoroughly established.
The oldest post Fugazzola Delpino has discovered at La Marmotta dates from around 5,690 BC, but she thinks ongoing work may yet reveal the village to have been born a century or so earlier.
She is more certain of when it died: within a decade or so of 5230 BC. “Since the sixth millennium BC, as the climate has grown wetter, the water level in Lake Bracciano has risen more than 25 feet, and so the ruins of the Neolithic lakeshore village are now buried in bottom mud 400 yards off shore” (Delpino 2002).
The strongest evidence that the Marmottans came from far away, probably originally making their way Arrone to its source in Lake Bracciano, is simply that their culture was advanced. In the region around Lake Bracciano, according to Fugazzola Delpino, there is no sign of any but hunter-gatherers before the settlement was built at La Marmotta.
The builders of the village had at their disposal, from the start, the entire “Neolithic package”:
domesticated animals and plants, ceramic pots, polished stone tools, just as though they had unloaded all those things from their boats.
They kept sheep and goats; they brought pigs and cows with them too, and two breeds of dog, and they planted a wide variety of crops—wheat and barley —and collected others in the woods.
“They had everything”, says Fugazzola, “They ate grains, vegetables, and also lots of fruit – apples, plums, raspberries, strawberries” Especially in winter they supplemented their diet with acorns, which they stored in large ceramic jars.
They cultivated flax to make linen. They planted opium poppies” One of their boats has been recovered.
A team of Czech archeologists built a copy of the boat and sailed it 500 miles along the Mediterranean coast to test its seaworthiness.