Rome is today considered one of the most important cities of art & culture in the world.
On its territory there are witness works of all the civilizations that have inhabited over the ages, from the Roman works to those medieval, renaissance, baroque, romantic and contemporary: this is why it appears to be the city with the most monuments in the world.
The Roman art was strongly influenced by two different cultural currents: the Italic culture (especially Etruscan way) and Hellenistic Greek culture; The Romans, however, did not give much importance to the world, it is considered a cause of the mos maiorum corruption.
In Rome, from the earliest centuries, he asserted portraiture, linked to the cult of the ancestors.
The conquest of foreign peoples did meet in the capital city immense wealth derived from the plundering of temples and enemy cities: the definitive conquest of the Greek territories, also put her in direct contact with Greek art treasures.
Roman architecture was based on their structural arrangement arc principle and the vault; the dome was the real Roman invention, along with a dense road network which connected Rome with the other cities of the empire.
Roman painting, probably similar to the Hellenistic period, is conventionally divided into four styles, known as Pompei; in Rome they have been preserved examples in various noble residences, such as the villa of Livia and at the Casa della Farnesina.
The Roman art can be divided into two strands: courtly art (or aristocratic) and plebeian art, from which derived the early Christian art and much of medieval art. Just Christianity changed the appearance of the city, which was enriched with catacombs, basilicas (built on the example of those civilians), of churches with mosaics. After centuries of decline due to barbarian invasions, in Rome the art experienced a new phase following the descent of the Franks in Italy and, above all, the coronation of Charlemagne, who wanted to rebuild an empire comparable to that of the Romans, by extension and power, but also for art and culture.
After the Middle Ages, characterized by noble families domain that enriched the face of the city with hundreds of towers, a symbol of their power, and the final affirmation of the papacy after the schism of the West, Rome changed its image, becoming the most important place of artistic production of the whole continent; in this period, in town they worked in the service of the Popes, the major architects and painters of the time: Masaccio and Masolino, Leon Battista Alberti, the Beato Angelico, Piero della Francesca, Pinturicchio, Botticelli, Bramante, Raphael and Michelangelo.
After five years of Pope Sixtus V, which changed the urban layout of the city, in the seventeenth century in Rome was born baroque art, which was in Carlo Maderno, Pietro da Cortona, Gian Lorenzo Bernini and Francesco Borromini its greatest exponents.
In the eighteenth century, Rome lost the political role of the main European capital, and despite the creation of some great works of art (including those of Antonio Canova), the artistic production underwent a slow decline, partly due to the events of city policies.
The turning point came with the breach of Porta Pia, which gave Rome to the Kingdom of Italy: the city had to adapt again to the role of capital and experienced a rapid expansion, urban and demographic. After Umbertine late nineteenth century and early twentieth century Rome Giolitti, he said fascism, which renewed the face of the city. The second half of the century was characterized by the creation of new districts, such as EUR, dominated art and modern and contemporary architecture.