Colosseum – Amphitheatrum Flavium
The Colosseum, originally known as Amphitheatrum Flavium (Italian: Flavian Amphitheatre) or Coliseum is the largest amphitheater in the world , located in the city center of Rome. Capable of holding a number of spectators estimated between 50,000 and 75,000 units, is the most important Roman amphitheater, and the most imposing monument of ancient Rome that has come down to us], known throughout the world as a symbol of the city of Rome and one of the symbols of Italy.
In 1980 entered the list of UNESCO World Heritage Site, along with the entire historic center of Rome, the extraterritorial zone of the Holy See in Italy and the Basilica of St. Paul Outside the Walls, the complex in 2007, the only European monument, It has also been included among the New seven wonders of the world, following a competition organized by New Open world Corporation (NOWC).
The amphitheater was built in the era Flavia on an area on the eastern edge of the Roman Forum. Its construction was begun by Vespasian in 72 A.D. and it inaugurated by Titus in 80, with further changes made during the reign of Domitian. The building forms an oval of 527 m perimeter, with axes measuring 187.5 and 156.5 m. The arena inside measure 86 × 54 m, with an area of 3,357 m². The current height reaches 48.5 m, but originally came to 52 m. The structure articulates the architectural and constructive conceptions of the first Roman Imperial Age, based respectively on the curve and wraparound design offered by the oval and the complexity of building systems. Arches and vaults are chained together in a close structural relationship.
The name “Colosseum” spread only in the Middle Ages and is derived from the popular deformation of the Latin adjective “colosseum” (translated into “colossal”, as it appeared in the Middle Ages among the houses on one or two floors) or, more probably by the proximity of the colossal bronze statue of Nero which stood near. Soon the building became a symbol of the imperial city, expression of an ideology in which the celebration will come to define models for recreation and enjoyment of the people.
In ancient times it was used for gladiatorial shows and other public events (hunting shows, re-enactments of famous battles, and dramas based on classical mythology). The tradition that wants the place of martyrdom of Christians is devoid of foundation. No longer in use after the sixth century, the huge structure was reused in various ways for centuries, also like material quarry. Today it is a symbol of the city of Rome and one of its major tourist attractions in the form of archaeological monument regularly visited.
Today his health concern, as studies on its structure showed more than 3,000 injuries and extensive cracking state Furthermore, in 2012 the encounter of an inclination of 40 cm of the structure, probably due to a failure of the foundation slab on which rests .
In 2016 the archaeological circuit of the Colosseum, Roman Forum and Palatine received 6,408,852 visitors, making it the second Italian state museums most visited site, behind the Pantheon.
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